Phase Change Material

Grey phase change materrial

PCM Series is a thermal interface material made from 99.99% Indium which is very soft and shapeable & has good thermal conductivity in the vertical (z-plane) direction. This material is a solid material at room temperature. When subjected to its specific temperature, its properties changes and becomes soft (into semi-flowing paste). This will allow easy shape conformation between 2 compressed surfaces. The material will return back into solid state when it reaches below its specific temperature. It can also be customized into different shapes and sizes based on the requirements of the application.

Features

  • Excellent thermal conductivity in the vertical z-plane (75 W/mK)
  • Good flexibility & compression ratio
  • Environmentally friendly, does not contain any toxic ingredients
  • Flexible and can be easily bent and trim to customized sizes
  • Thin and lightweight
  • Heat resistant up to 600°C
  • RoHS compliant

Areas of Application

  • Semiconductor device testing, e.g. CPU, GPU, MCM, etc
  • Mobile phones & PC tablets, PCs, Servers, and cloud storage
  • PDP, LED devices, IGBT Modules
  • Optical communications equipment, medical equipment

Phase change material

A phase change material (PCM) is a substance that provides and absorbs sufficient energy at phase transformation to provide useful heat and cooling. The energy in which phase transitions from solid into liquid generally exceeds the sensible heat energy released through this transit molecule. The PVM can be stored at the phase change temperature (PCT) and released by melting and solidifying compared to sensible heat. PCMs are used in many commercial uses where energy storage and/or stable temperatures are required such as heating pads, cooling devices and clothing. The biggest possible market is building heating and cooling.

Phase changes material absorb heat and generate heat throughout the melting and freezing process. PCMs are in one of three main categories based on the base Material: water-based, salt hydrating and organic material based. The benefits of a PCM is also infinite. PCM’s can be used at many different uses in different applications. They included energy savings, better sleeping in the night cool and heated relief in locations where electricity isn’t readily available and better electronics operating conditions. PCMs are either encapsulated or empty cells. They come with various melting points and depressed temperatures. The benefits of PCM can last many years.

Thermal storage resources

Phase change material (PCM) stores thermal energy through a phase change of solid to liquid. The latent heat from melting or freezing is about 1 or 2 orders of magnitude greater than the energy lost in the particular heat. PCMs such as paraffin waxes commonly used in such heat exchangers may have poor thermal conductivities of some 1 W/m-K. We have extensive experience working on specialized and efficient cooling systems, from milliwatt power up to kilowatt. PCM assemblies for heat storage use various PCMs and wall materials to meet application specific requirements.

The benefits of load-leveling in systems ranges from individually-connected chips to large heat exchangers in directed energy weapons (DEW) systems. During a charging a computer’s battery heat can melt and is used to absorb a power charge. It freezes eventually over the rest of the cycle to prevent heat dissipating throughout this entire cycle. By the dampening of the heat load the PCM heat exchanger enables the most efficient heat rejection system to be designed for substantially reduced heat load. For applications with extreme heat pressures PCM can significantly reduce the overall size of needed heat sink.

Sensible heat capacity

When matter is heated and the phase is not altered, its inside temperature increases. One example of this is the glass of hot water being put out during the sun. When the sun shines upon the glass it increases energy and water molecules become stronger. This can be called hot sensitivity. Sensible heat capacity is the capability of a material to absorb heat energy as it increases in temperature (warm up) The material is a material that absorbs.

Phase-change material (PCMs) offer a unique pair of properties. There are recent developments utilizing PCM devices and evaluating potential for photonic memories. Coloring rendering and the display of Nano pixels is another interesting application. Nanophotonic applications built into plasmonic nanostructures are presented. These units provide reconfigurable, nonvolatile functionality enabling controlling and manipulating light. The challenge of making waveguides with stepwise adjustable transmission is discussed here.

Short term thermal storage

PCM heat sinks are exceptionally compact, lightweight and offer higher reliability resulting from a passive operation. It is an excellent advantage compared to traditional stable-state solutions. For one-off use applications unlike pulsed operation the PCM acts to absorb the heat loads at full charge in full operation. The thermal storage capacities on PCM are advantageous to designers of short duration applications such as missile electronic thermal management. PCM heat sinks can be developed for military electronic thermal management missile electronic systems with insufficient storage or system weight do not permit bulky thermal solutions.

Protection from failure during coolant interruptions

A PCM cooler solution will ensure reliable extended service time before electronic electronics or batteries overheat by using thermal information. Solution can be tailored by the duration and maximum temperature of the electronic circuit to allow safe operation if secondary coolant loss occurs. It also provides an economically efficient, lightweight system for increased thermal energy management reliability. The solution is a lightweight alternative to the requirement of batteries or auxiliary power.

Phase-shift matrix (PCRM) plays an important role in the dynamic temperature and moisture buffering processes of the system. This section describes the design of PCM fashion using a series of experimental and computational simulations. Three types of specially selected fabric were chosen for a test. All experiments occurred in a climate chamber with temperature controlled at – 15 – 0.5 Degree Celsius. The temperature of the first layer of the PCM with the heating unit is about 3.05 times higher than in the PCM without the heating module. In general temperature of these layers is higher than the temperature of the general surface.

Phase change material Applications

Phase change matter such as paraffin can be incorporated by spinning dope and mixing it into fabrics into insulating foams or coating. If the ambient temperature reaches that melting point PCM will transform from a solid to a watery liquid and therefore absorb heat from the fabric. Until recently textile cloth or garments with phase change material cooling was used as the precool vest invented by the Australian Institute of Sport at the Athens Olympics. The vest was set to reduce the core heat and prevent overheating by the players. Some designers tried to apply it onto protective clothing such as fire-resistant cooling suits.

Examples

Vegetable-based PCMs

Vegetable PCMs seem to be much more successful when compared to other types of paraffin products. Vegetable PCM are made with renewable farm-made products while paraffins are produced from petroleum goods. Many vegetable PCMs have longer flash points, better ignition rates and longer horizontal flame propagation rates than conventional ones. Many fat- and vegetable PCMs are sold at much lower than those produced from vegetable sources. Most importantly a wide variety of fat and vegetable-based. PCM prices have gone sluggish.

Vegetable compounds are starting to move strongly into this PCM market. Safe consumption of vegetable compounds is substantially better as the use of them has environmental and social advantages than that of paraffin. Paraffines are toxic in that they can have toxic effects if ingested. Many vegetable based PCM have the capacity to be considered “food grade”, or have no impact if they are ingested. Several vegetable products showed stability after 30 years of accelerated aging tests. Vegetable based PCs can be generated using commonly available foods locally. This leads to greater stability of prices and regional input material. Vegetable PCM have become carbon neutral.

Paraffins

Paraffins are high molecular mass Hydrocarbons which have waxy consistency at room temperature. The melting point of paraffin is directly determined by the number of carbon atoms within the material structure. Alkanes containing 12-14 C atoms each contain melting points between 6 and 80 Degrees centigrade. Paraffin waxes contain an equal number of hydrocarbon molecules with lower melting point and lower latent heat distributions. These are termed ‘pure paraffin waxes’ & should not be confused with paraffin wax. Paraffins are good PCM candidates in certain applications.

Applications of organic phase change materials

OPCMs are specially suitable for thermal operations since they can operate above temperatures of 0 to 335°C. Selection of OPCM for practical applications is the basis of the phase change temperature, which should meet the needs of the application. Optimal choice of shape stable OPCs in practical applications. Applications are classified by phases. Thermal transitions between 18 and 65°C are possible. Management of buildings, textile systems, photovoltaic systems, batteries and electronics equipment.

The PCMS heat sinks were designed so that a thermally stable substance could be absorbed without generating heat during meltdown. PCMs must be designed to support low thermal conductivity typical PCMs. The PCM heat sink calculator may be used to estimate the approximate size and mass of a PCM heat sink in thermal storage applications. A note about the basic types of PCM: paraffin waxes and non paraffin organics hydrating salts but also metallurgical PCM heat sinks have to be designed around low conductivity.

Phase change processes absorb or release large quantities of what some people consider to be ‘latent energy’ during physical change. The technology for using the PCM into textile structure was developed in the early 1980s for the support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and was funded through. Today textiles having PCM treatment are widely used in the textile industry for clothes and home décor items. However other textile products using the PCM technology are being developed and will subsequently appear on the market. Before PCM can be included into any textile product a micro-encapsulation is used.

Water and Gel Packs

Ice and gel packs have become very popular to keep products cool around 0°C. These devices have the advantage of excellent performance, low cost, non-toxic, not flammable, environmentally friendly and user friendly. The only disadvantage it has is that they are only useful when preventing temperature and environment control at 0 degrees. When determining a PCM that is a water based component below 0C a salt is added to the water. This will decrease the freezing point and this will reduce the latent heat significantly and broaden the melt/freeze temperature. This technique is common at least for many applications to add salt to ice to make homemade ice cream.

Self-adjusting cement-based composites

Phase changing material combines a long amount or release of depleted heat during the transformation of physical properties. This translates into the transitional process in phase. The maximum indoor temperature difference between the composite made in cement. Cement-based composite materials including phase change material for cooling pcm may be applied as self-adjusting, thermo-comfortable, energy efficient building materials. In addition the researchers demonstrated that the cement composites have favorable thermal insulation properties and mechanical properties compared with those doped only with PCMs.

Specifications

Description/TypeUnitPCM-500 SpecificationsTest Method
Part Number-PCM-500-75XXX-In-B*PCM-500-75XXX-In-LTPSA*PCM-500-75XXX-In-HT PSA*-
Type-BarePressure-Sensitive Adhesive (Low Tack)Pressure-Sensitive Adhesive (High Tack)-
# of Sides Coated-NASingle / DoubleSingle / Double-
Material-IndiumIndiumIndiumNA
Thicknessmm0.1/0.2/0.5/1.00.1/0.2/0.5/1.10.1/0.2/0.5/1.0ASTM D374
Thermal Conductivity (Z-plane)W/mK757475ASTM D5470
Operating Temperature-50~600-50~599-50~600EN344
Phase Change Temperature565556-
RoHS-PASSPASSPASSIEC 62321
*For part number, XXX represents the thickness of material. For example, 0.3mm thick will be 030 & 1.0mm thick will be 100

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